Total Herodotus also records that this was the number at the Battle of Salamis, despite the losses earlier in storms off Sepia and Euboea, and at the battle of Artemisium. He claims that the losses were replenished with reinforcements, though he only records triremes from the Greeks of Thrace and an unspecified number of ships from the Greek islands. Aeschyluswho fought at Salamis, also claims that he faced 1, warships there, of which 1, were triremes and fast ships.
A brief treatment of the Greco-Persian Wars follows. For full treatment, see ancient Greek civilization: After the defeat of the Lydian king Croesus c. In Darius came to power and set about consolidating and strengthening the Persian empire.
In bce the Greek city-states on the western coast of Anatolia rose up in rebellion against Persia. This uprising, known as the Ionian revolt — bcefailed, but its consequences for the mainland Greeks were momentous. Athens and Eretria had sent a small fleet in support of the revolt, which Darius took as a pretext for launching an invasion of the Greek mainland.
His forces advanced toward Europe in bce, but, when much of his fleet was destroyed in a storm, he returned home. However, in a Persian army of 25, men landed unopposed on the Plain of Marathonand the Athenians appealed to Sparta to join forces against the invader.
Owing to a religious festival, the Spartans were detained, and the 10, Athenians had to face the Persians aided only by 1, men from Plataea. The Athenians were commanded by 10 generals, the most daring of whom was Miltiades.
While the Persian cavalry was away, he seized the opportunity to attack. The Greeks then prevented a surprise attack on Athens itself by quickly marching back to the city. The unprecedented size of his forces made their progress quite slow, giving the Greeks plenty of time to prepare their defense.
A general Greek league against Persia was formed in Command of the army was given to Sparta, that of the navy to Athens. The Greek fleet numbered about vessels and was thus only about one-third the size of the Persian fleet.
Herodotus estimated the Persian army to number in the millions, but modern scholars tend to doubt his reportage. The Greeks decided to deploy a force of about 7, men at the narrow pass of Thermopylae and a force of ships under Themistocles at Artemisium.
At sea a detachment of Persian ships attempted to surprise the Greek fleet, but the Greeks, forewarned, engaged the main Persian navy.
That night a tremendous storm destroyed the Persian squadron while the Greeks were safely in port.
On land the Persians attacked the Greeks at Thermopylae for two days but suffered heavy losses. However, on the second night a Greek traitor guided the best Persian troops around the pass behind the Greek army.
The Spartan general Leonidas dispatched most of the Greeks south to safety but fought to the death at Thermopylae with the Spartan and Thespian soldiers who remained. While the battle raged at Thermopylae, the Persian fleet attacked the Greek navy, with both sides losing many ships.
In September the Persians burned Athens, which, however, by that time had been evacuated. In the meantime, the Greeks decided to station their fleet in the Strait of Salamis.
Themistocles devised a clever stratagem: Soon afterward, the Persian navy retreated to Asia. It was finally driven from the country after the battle of Plataea in bce, where it was defeated by a combined force of Spartans, Tegeansand Athenians.
The Persian navy was defeated at Mycale, on the Asiatic coast, when it declined to engage the Greek fleet. Instead the Persian navy beached its ships and, joining a land army, fought a losing battle against a Spartan force led by Leotychidas.
Although the Persian invasion was ended by the battles at Plataea and Mycale, fighting between Greece and Persia continued for another 30 years. Led by the Athenians, the newly formed Delian League went on the offensive to free the Ionian city-states on the Anatolian coast.
The league had mixed success, and in bce the Peace of Callias finally ended the hostilities between Athens and its allies and Persia. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:The Role of Themistocles in the Greek Defeat of the Persians in - BC.
Words | 6 Pages. The Role of Themistocles in the Greek Defeat of the Persians in - BC. At the beginning of the 5th century BC, the Persian Empire extended from modern day .
from the country after the battle of Plataea in bce, where it was defeated by a combined force of Spartans, Tegeans, and Athenians.
The Persian navy was defeated at Mycale, on the Asiatic coast, when it declined to engage the Greek fleet. It was the invasion of Greece from BC to BC; King Xerxes I, of Persia, was determined to conquer Greece during the Greco-Persian Wars; he had an army of over , men.
The invasion was an immediate call to the defeat of the first Persian war of Greece that lasted from BC to BC at the Battle of Marathon.
This first invasion ended ruler Darius I's endeavor to subjugate Greece. The Battle of Salamis (/ but ultimately the Allies may have realised that they needed an even more constricted channel in order to defeat the Persians. Therefore, by rowing into the Straits of Salamis to attack the Greeks, the Persians were playing into the Allies' hands.
The following year, BC, Mardonius recaptured Athens (the. In the wake of the Greek defeat at Thermopylae in BC, the major north-central city-states defected to Persia.
Thebes, perennial source of hardened hoplites, was by far the most important of these, as her disciplined phalanx would substantially reinforce the Persians’ lighter infantry forces. A Greek fleet was sent to Cyprus in BC, but achieved little, and, when it withdrew, the Greco-Persian Wars drew to a quiet end.
Some historical sources suggest the end of hostilities was marked by a peace treaty between Athens and Persia, the Peace of Callias.