Successes and Failures of Reconstruction It is possible to consider the Reconstruction Era as a positive for the US development, but it still has its pros and cons. Among the positive achievements of the Reconstruction of the US is the reunification of the Union after the 4 years of separation.
The country became increasingly urban, and cities grew not only in terms of population but also in size, with skyscrapers pushing cities upward and new transportation systems extending them outward. Part of the urban population growth was fueled by an unprecedented mass immigration to the United States that continued unabated into the first two decades of the twentieth century.
Meanwhile, ongoing industrialization and urbanization left their mark on how people spent their daily lives and used their leisure time.
Inthere were only two American cities with a population of more than ,; bythere were six, and three of these — New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia — boasted over one million inhabitants. Roughly 40 percent of Americans lived in cities and the number was climbing.
Although much of the urbanization occurred in the industrial regions of the Northeast and Midwest, it was a national phenomenon that often corresponded to the presence of railroads. For example, Atlanta experienced a rapid economic recovery in the last quarter of the century, and Los Angeles became a boomtown in the s due to the Southern Pacific and Santa Fe railroads.
Because the birth rate in the United States declined in the late nineteenth century, urban growth reflected an internal migration of Americans from farms and small towns to the larger cities and the overseas migration that brought millions of people to U. In the s, however, the origin of immigrants shifted to Southern and Eastern Europe.
Another popular misconception is that all immigrants found permanent homes in the United States. In fact, perhaps as many as three out of every ten new arrivals most of them single young men returned to their homeland after they earned enough money to buy land or set up their own business.
Seeking familiar surroundings, they tended to live and work with people from their native country. Although their children attended public schools and quickly learned English, immigrant parents continued to use their native tongue, transplanting a bit of the Old World into the new.
Whether nicknamed Little Italy, Little Bohemia, or Chinatown, immigrant neighborhoods were rich with Old World languages, from the words printed in the newspapers and on the signs in store windows to the voices heard on the streets.
These neighborhoods, which helped ease the transition from greenhorn as newcomers were often called to citizen, were terribly overcrowded, with upward of 4, people housed on a single block.
Such overcrowding contributed to poverty, crime, and disease. Moreover, new immigrants were often portrayed as dangerous radicals ready to undermine the American political system or as threats to the jobs of American workers because of their willingness to settle for lower wages.
Given these attitudes toward foreigners, it is not surprising that calls for restrictions on immigration began to sound. InCongress denied convicts, paupers, and the mentally ill the right to enter the United States and three years later prohibited contract laborers immigrants whose passage was paid in return for working for a certain period of time.
Neither law had much affect on what was essentially an open immigration policy. The Chinese Exclusion Acton the other hand, suspended immigration from China for ten years; it was extended for another decade in and then was made permanent in The law was not repealed until Skyscrapers and mass transit.
As more and more people crowded into the large cities, the value of urban land increased. The solution to rising costs of real estate and the need to maximize the use of available space was to build up.
The availability of cheap cast iron and, later, structural steel, improved fireproofing, and the electric elevator allowed for the construction of taller and taller buildings.
Chicago became the home of the skyscraper because of the disastrous fire of that destroyed most of the central business district. The building codes that went into effect after the fire required that all new construction use noncombustible materials.
Office buildings of 20 or more stories were common in large cities throughout the country by the end of the nineteenth century.
One attempt at improving housing for the poor actually had the opposite effect. When two tenements were built next to each other, the indentations created an airshaft that provided limited ventilation and light to the interior apartments.
A block lined with dumbbell tenements housed more than 4, people, significantly adding to overcrowding in poor neighborhoods; future construction was banned in New York in Improved urban transportation helped shape the modern city.
Mass transit helped to change living patterns. As trolley or subway lines extended beyond what used to be the city limits, the first suburbs were created, resulting in residential segregation by income.Immigration and Citizenship in the United States, More immigrants— million—came to the United States between and than had arrived in the United States and the British North American colonies during the preceding three centuries combined.
(The U.S. population was million in ) Between and , (CC) was a United States federal law that limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in , according to the Census of The growth of American metropolises was spectacular; in no city in the US had a million inhabitants; by , New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia had passed the million mark; by New York had million people (2 nd largest city in the world).
American Society and Culture, – African‐Americans after Reconstruction; Everyday Life in America; A New Society: Economic & Social Change. and nearly , Mexicans entered the United States between and Although most of the Spanish‐speaking population lived in the Southwest and California and worked as farm.
Immigration: Challenges for New Americans. From its beginnings, the United States has been of immigrants enters into American life, many of the controversies and tensions evident in previous peri - Immigration to the United States, Immigration and Citizenship in the United States, More immigrants— million—came to the United States between and than had arrived in the United States and the British North American colonies during the preceding three centuries combined.
(The U.S. population was million in ) Between and ,