Longman academic writing series 3 unit 1

Longman Academic Writing Series 3: The Longman Academic Reading Series is a five-level series that prepares

Longman academic writing series 3 unit 1

Schunk Chapter in R. At the turn of the 20th century, when American psychology began to take its place among the other academic disciplines, there was much interest in the role that self-beliefs play in human conduct. Also critical to the quest for understanding self-processes were the writings of psychoanalysts such as Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, who framed the self as the regulating center of an individual's personality and shed light on self-processes under the guise of id, ego, and superego functioning.

Erik Erikson later focused on critical aspects of self to trace adolescents' development of their ego identity.

Notwithstanding the efforts of James, the psychoanalysts, and other proponents of self-study, psychologists espousing a behaviorist orientation swelled their ranks by pointing out that only a person's tangible, observable, and measurable behavior was fit for scientific inquiry.

When the smoke cleared, the behaviorism of John Watson and later B. Skinner carried the day. Psychology was redirected, attention was turned to observable stimuli and responses, and the inner life of the individual was labeled as beyond the scope of scientific psychology.

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Coinciding with the zenith of behavioristic influence came what is now often referred to as the "humanistic revolt" in psychology.

Apprehensive about what they considered the narrow and passive view of human functioning that behaviorism represented, a group of psychologists called for renewed attention to inner experience, to internal processes, and to self-beliefs e.

During the s and s there was a resurgence of interest in self-beliefs, most notably an effort by many educators and psychologists to promote an emphasis on the importance of a healthy and positive self-esteem.

Also born in American schools at about this time was the self-enhancement view of academic functioning, that is, the view that, because a child's self-esteem is the critical ingredient and primary cause of academic achievement, teacher practices and academic strategies should be aimed at fostering students' self-esteem.

Through the years, American schools have followed the prescriptions of psychologists. After all, teachers are trained in the universities that spawn these psychological movements. It was unavoidable that when American psychology lost interest in self-beliefs from early to mid-century so did American education.

longman academic writing series 3 unit 1

It was also unavoidable that when humanistic psychology reclaimed the self and began a crusade of sorts that emphasized promoting self-esteem as the primary vehicle toward personal growth, education also followed suit. But the humanistic crusade had profoundly uneven results, and many laudable but misguided efforts to nurture the self-esteem of children fell prey to excesses and, ultimately, ridicule see Beane, ; Kohn, Adding to these uneven results was the troublesome fact that research on the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement either was inconclusive or provided unsettling results.

One analysis of self-esteem studies revealed that correlations between self-esteem and academic achievement ran the gamut from a positive. What followed was not only a reduced interest in self-research in education but a backlash against the "self-esteem movement" itself. During the s, educators shifted their interest in motivation toward cognitive processes and information-processing views of human functioning.

This "cognitive revolution," as it has come to be called, was influenced by technological advances and by the advent of the computer, which served as the movement's signature metaphor and model of mind. In education, this new wave of theorists and researchers emphasized internal, mental events, but the emphasis was primarily on cognitive tasks rather than on exploring issues related to the influence of students' self-beliefs in schooling.

Again, schools followed suit. Research on students' self-beliefs in education did not merely wane; it was viewed as antithetical to sound educational understandings as a type of "psychology-lite" undertaking.

In the back-to-basics national mood, students' emotional concerns were regarded as irrelevant to their academic achievement.

longman academic writing series 3 unit 1

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