Overview of antibiotic resistance

For more than 50 years, pharmacists have dispensed antibiotics to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms. After their discovery inantibiotics rapidly grew in number and potency, causing doctors and scientists to almost entirely disregard the challenge of treating bacterial diseases. The misuse and overuse of antibiotics have resulted in a continuous evolution of bacteria resistant to the drugs that were previously able to control them.

Overview of antibiotic resistance

Sign up now Antibiotics: Are you misusing them? Find out how overuse of antibiotics has increased the number of medication-resistant germs — and what you can do to help stop this health threat.

By Mayo Clinic Staff Antibiotics are important medications. It would be difficult to overstate the benefits of penicillin and other antibiotics in treating bacterial infections, preventing the spread of disease and reducing serious complications of disease.

When an antibiotic no longer has an effect on a certain strain of bacteria, those bacteria are said to be antibiotic resistant. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics are key factors contributing to antibiotic resistance.

The general public, doctors and hospitals all play a role in ensuring proper use of the medications and minimizing the development of antibiotic resistance.

An overview of antimicrobial resistance and its public health significance

What causes antibiotic resistance? A bacterium resists a medication when the bacterium has changed in some way. The change either protects the bacterium from the action of the medication or neutralizes the medication. Any bacterium that survives an antibiotic treatment can multiply and pass on its resistant properties.

Also, some bacteria can transfer their medication-resistant properties to other bacteria — as if passing along a cheat sheet to help each other survive.

The fact that bacteria develop resistance to a medication is normal and expected. But the way that medications are used affects how quickly and to what extent resistance occurs.

About Antimicrobial Resistance | Antibiotic/Antimicrobial Resistance | CDC

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, up to one-third to one-half of antibiotic use in humans is unnecessary or inappropriate. Antibiotics treat bacterial infections but not viral infections.

For example, an antibiotic is an appropriate treatment for strep throat, which is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes.Much is known about the two general mechanisms, especially with regard to antibiotics. In this review, current aspects of the mechanisms of resistance of several different types of bacteria to a broad range of antibiotics and biocides will be discussed.

Antibiotic Resistance: Social, Economical and Biological Aspects. The history of efforts to control infectious pathogens shows a concerning fact: as the antimicrobials were use by long periods, the bacteria resistance evolved.

Overview of antibiotic resistance

Excessive antibiotic use has become one of the top contributors to the development of antibiotic resistance. Since the beginning of the antibiotic era, antibiotics have been used to treat a wide range of disease.

Overuse of antibiotics has become the primary cause of rising levels of antibiotic resistance. The antibiotics used in livestock are ingested by humans when they consume food.

1 The transfer of resistant bacteria to humans by farm animals was first noted more than 35 years ago, when high rates of antibiotic resistance were found in the intestinal flora of both farm animals and farmers. 14 More recently, molecular detection methods have. Although doctors try to use antibiotics for specific bacterial infections, they sometimes start antibiotics without waiting for tests that identify the specific bacteria.

Bacteria can develop resistance to the effects of antibiotics. Antibiotics can have side effects, such as upset stomach, diarrhea.

Overview on Mechanisms of Antibacterial Resistance The level of antibiotic resistance is dependent on the following: the population of organisms that spontaneously acquire resistance mechanisms as a result of selective pressure either from antibiotic use or otherwise, the rate of introduction from the community of those resistant .

An Overview of Antibiotics | Longitude Prize